JULY

July 1:

1535: Sir Thomas Moore went on trial in England for treason.
1804: George Sand born.
1863: The three-day battle of Gettysburg began.
1898: Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders charged the hill in San Juan, Cuba.
1934: Hollywood began using the Production Code to subject movies to censorship review.
1943: Paycheck withholding tax collection begins.
1946: The US set off a 20 kiloton atomic bomb near the Bikini Atoll in the Pacific.
1966: The medicare federal insurance program went into effect.
1973: In a day of infamy, the Drug Enforcement Agency was established.
1997: The Chinese regained control of Hong Kong after 156 years as a British colony.

July 02

1566: French astrologer Nostradamus died.
1776: The Continental Congress passed a resolution tht "these United States are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states."
1877: Hermann Hesse born.
1881: President James A. Garfield was shot by Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker.
1890: Sherman Anti Trust Act passed.
1926: US Army Air Corp created.
1937: Amelia Earhart and her navigator, Fred Noonan, disappeared over the Pacific.
1961: Ernest Hemmingway shot himself to death at his home in Ketchum, Idaho.
1964: President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act.

July 03

1608: City of Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain.
1863: The three-day Battle of Gettysburg ended with a CSA retreat.
1883: Franz Kafka born.
1930: The Veterans Administration formed.
1930: Pete Fountain, jazz musician, born.
1950: North Korean and US troops battled for the first time during the Korean War.
1965: Trigger, beloved horse of Roy Rogers, died.
1971: Singer Jim Morrison (The Doors) died in Paris at age 27.
2012: Actor Andy Griffith died at age 86. He played Sheriff Andy Taylor in The Andy Griffith Show.

July 04

1776: The Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence.
1802: The U.S. Military Academy at West Point (New York) opened.
1804: Nathaniel Hawthorne born.
1826: Thomas Jefferson died.
1831: James Monroe, the fifth president of the United States, died.
1900: Louis Armstrong born.

July 05

1801: Naval hero David G. Farragut born in Knoxville, Tennessee.
1810: Phineas T. Barnum born in Bethel, Conn.
1865: William Booth founded the Salvation Army in London.
1935: Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the National Labor Relations Act into law.
1946: The bikini, designed by Louis Reard, amde its debut in Paris.
1947: Larry Doby signed a contract with the Cleveland Indians, becoming the first black basseball player in the American League.
1950: Private Kenneth Shadrick of Skin Fork, West Virginia, became the first US fatality in the Korean War.
195n: Pat Demand born.
1967: Actress Jayne Mansfield died at age 34 in an automobile accident in Slidell, Louisiana.
2007: The initial version of the iPhone goes on sale.

July 06

1483: England's Richard III crowned King.
1535: Sir Thomas Moore was executed for treason in England.
1777: British forces, led by General John Burgoyne, captured Fort Ticonderoga.
1854: The Republican Party founded at a convention in Jackson, Michigan.
1885: Louis Pasteur succesfully tested an rabies vaccine.
1923: The U.S.S.R. was formed.
1946: Sylvester Stallone born.
1997: The rover Sojourner touched down on the Martian landscape to begin collecting soil samples as it exited the Mars Pathfinder.
2002: Gunmaker William Ruger dies at age 86.

July 07

1846: the US annexation of California was proclaimed with the surrender of the Mexican garrison at Monterey.
1865: Four people were hanged in Washington, D.C., for conspiracy to kill President Lincoln.
1898: US annexed Hawaii.
1907: Novelist Robert Heinlein born.
1930: Construction began on Boulder Dan, later renamed Hoover Dam.
1940: Ringo Starr born.
1958: President Eisenhower signed the bill making Alaska a state.
1981: President Reagan announced the nomination of Sandra Day O Connor to the US Supreme Court.

July 08

1889: Wall Street Journal first published.
1889: John L. Sullivan knocked out Jake Kilrain in the last bare-knuckle championship in the US. It lasted 75 rounds at Richburg, Mississippi.
1896: William Jennings Bryan, while seeking the presidential nomination of the Democrat Party, gave his famous speech stating: "You shall not crucify mankind on a cross of gold."
1907: Florenz Ziefgeld staged his first Ziegfeld Follies, on the roof of the New York Theatre.
1950: Douglas MacArthur became commander of UN forces in Korea.
1959: Major Dale R Buis of Imperial Beach, California and Master Sgt. Chester M Ovnand of Copperas Cove became the first US soldiers killed during the Vietnam War.
2012: Actor Ernest Borgnine died at age 95.

July 09

1776: The Declaration of Independence was read aloud to General George Washington's troops in New York.
1850: The 12th president of the United States, Zachary Taylor, died in office after serving only one year and four months.
1984: New York passes the first compulsory seat-belt law in the US.
1890: Wyoming became the 44th state.
1993: Famous economist Henry Hazlitt died at age 98.

July 10

1850: Vice President Millard Fillmore succeeded to the presidency following the death of Zachry Taylor the day before.
1871: Marcel Proust born.
1925: The Scopes, "Monkey trial" began.
1925: Tass, the official news agency, was established in the USSR.
1940: the 114 day Battle of Britain began.
1951: Armistice talks disigned to end the Korean War began at Kaesong.
1985: Acknowledging a public outcry, Coca Cola announced it would resume selling the old formula Coke, while continuing to sell New Coke.
2015: Actor Omar Sharif died at age 83. He starred in such films as Lawrence of Arabia (1962), Doctor Zhivago 1965), Funny Girl 1969, The 13th Warrior 1999, and Hidalgo (2004).

July 11

1533: Pope Clement VII excommunicated England's King Henry VIII.
1767: John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the US, was born in Braintree, Mass.
1798: US Marine Corps created by Congress.
1804: Vice President Aaron Burr killed Alexander Hamilton in a pistol duel near Weehawken, New Jersey.
1899: E.B. White born.
1955: The US Air Force Academy was dedicated at Lowry AFB outside Colorado Springs, Colorado.
1977: The Medal of Freedom was posthumously awarded to the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.

July 12

100 BC: Julius Caesar born.
1690: Protestant troops led by William of Orange defeated the Roman Catholic army of James II at the Battle of Boyne in Northern Ireland.
1812: US forces, under the command of General William Hull, invaded Canada during the War of 1812.
1817: Henry David Thoreau born in Concord, Mass.
1862: Congress authorized the Medal of Honor.
1864: George Washington Carver born.
1933: The US government set the minimum wage at forty cents per hour.
1984: Walter Mondale named Geraldine Ferraro as his vice presidential candidate.

July 13

1787: Congress enacted an ordinance governing the Northwest Territory.
1863: One thousand killed during rioting in New York City against the draft during the Civil War.
1960: JFK received the Democrat nomination for President.
1977: New York City had its major blackout after a lighting strike.

July 14

1789: Citizens of Paris stormed the Bastille prison and released seven prisoners.
1881: William H Bonney, Jr., aka Billy the Kid, was shot to death by Sheriff Pat Garrett in Fort Sumner, New Mexico.
1903: Irving Stone was born.
1921: Sacco & Vanzetti were convicted in Dedham, Maine, of killing a shoe company paymaster and his guard. They were executed six years later.
1933: All political parties except the Nazi Party were outlawed in Germany.
1966: Eight student nurses were murdered by Richard Speck in a Chicago dormitory.
1913: President Gerald Ford born.
1918: Ingmar Bergman born

July 15

1606: Dutch painter Rembrandt born in Leiden, the Netherlands.
1799: The Rosetta Stone discovered in Egypt by French soldiers.
1815: Napoleon surrendered and is exiled to St. Helena in the South Atlantic.
1834: The Inquisition officially ends in Spain, after 600 years.
1870: Georgia became the last of the Confederate States to be readmitted to the Union.
1971: President Nixon anounced he would visit the Peole's Republic of China to seek a "normalization of relations."

July 16

1790: District of columbia established as the seat of the US government.
1821: Mary Baker Eddy was born.
1918: Czar Nicholas II, his wife and their five children were executed by the Bolsheviks.
1935: The first parking meters were installed, in Oklahoma City.
1945: US exploded the first atomic bomb in the desert near Alamogordo, New Mixico at a site called Trinity.
1969: Apollo 11, carrying Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Micheal Collins, blasted off from Cape Kennedy on the first mission to the surface of the moon.
1973: Former White House aid Alexander Butterfield publically revealed the exitence of President Nixon's secret taping system.
2012: Author Stephen B. Covey, author of Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, dies at age 79.

July 17

1821: Spain ceded Florida to the United States.
1841: British humor magazine Punch first published.
1898: The Spanish surrendered to the United States at Santiago, Cuba.
1889: Erle Stanley Gardner born.
1912: Art Linkletter born.
1917: Phyllis Diler born.
1938: Aviator Douglas Corrigan departed New York headed for California. He ended up in Ireland, and earned himself the name, "Wrong Way Corrigan." 1955: Disneyland had its opening day in Anaheim, California.
1975: Apollo and Soyuz docked in orbit.

July 18

64: The Great Fire of Rome began.
1536: The authoriy of the Pope in England was declared void.
1811: William Thackery born.
1817: Jane Austen dies.
1872: Britain introduced the secret ballot.
1927: Ty Cobb made his 4,000th hit.

July 19

1553: Mary, daughter of King Henry VIII, was declared Queen of England.
1847: Brigham Yound looked upon the Great Salt Lake and proclaimed, "This is the Place."
1848: One of the first women's rights conventions, called by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia C. Mott, convened in Seneca Falls, New York.
1870: The Franco-Prussian war began.
1941: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill launched his "V" for Victory campaign in Europe.
1964: TWA became the first airline to show in-flight movies (in the First Class cabins).

July 20

1304: Petrarch born.
1861: First session of the Confederate States of American began in Richmond, Va.
1881: Sioux Indian leader Sitting Bull surrendered to Federal troops.
1917: The draft lottery for World War I began.
1944: A group of German officials failed in their assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler.
1969: Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong walked on the moon.
1973: Bruce Lee dies.
1976: Viking 1 landed on Mars.
1984: Vanessa Williams, Miss America of 1984, was asked by pageant officials to resign because of nude photos published in Penthouse.

July 21

1816: Paul Julius Reuter, founder of the Reuters news agency, born in Hess, Germany.
1861: First Battle of Bull Run fought at Manassas, Virginia. The CSA won.
1885: Frances Parkinson Keyes born.
1899: Ernest Hemingway born in Oak Park, Illinois.
1899: Robert Ingersoll died of a heart attack while writing one more essay, at the age of 65.
1924: Don Knotts born.
1925: The jury in the "Monkey Trial" voted to convict John T. Scopes.
1954: France surrendered North Vietnam to the Communists.

July 22

1587: The second English colony on roanoke Island was established off North Carolina. Like the first colony, it vanished under mysterious circumstances.
1933: American aviator Wiley Post completed the first solo flight around the world.
1934: John Dillinger was shot to death by the Feds in Chicago.
1942: Gasoline rationing began in the US during WWII.
1975: The US citizenship of Robert E. Lee was restored by votes of the US House and Senate.
1999: Toby, our golden retriever, died at home at 1:07 pm. He was just shy of thirteen years old. His elegy is at http://www.burger.com/toby.htm
RIP

July 23

1802: Alexandre dumas born.
1888: Raymond Chandler born.
1904: Official invention date of the ice cream cone by Charles E. Mencles-during the Louisiana Purchase Exposiition in St. Louis, Missouri.
1914: Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia following the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand. The dispute eventually led to WW I.
1916: John D. MacDonald born.
1984: Vanessa Williams became the first Miss America to resign her title.

July 24

1866: Tennessee bacame the first state to be redmitted th the Union after the Civil War.
1946: US detonated the atomic bomb at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific in its first underwater test.
1959: Nixon debated Khrushchev on the merits of capitalism in the "Kitchen Debate," which took place in a model kitchen at a US exhibition in the USSR.
1974: The US Supreme Court unaminousluy ruled that President Richard M. Nixon had to turn over subpoened White House tape recordings to the Watergate special prosecutor.
2013: Virginia Johnson, of Masters and Johnson fame, died. In 1966 she co-authored Human Sexual Response with William Masters.

July 25

1866: U.S. Grant was named General of the Army, the first officer to hold that rank.
1868: Congress passed an act creating the Wyoming Territory.
1952: Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth of the US.
1956: 51 people died as the Andrea Doria sank after hitting the Stockholm.
1963: The US, USSR and Britain initialed a treaty in Moscow which prohibited testing of nuclear weapons in the air, space or under water.
1978: First test tube baby born in Oldham, England.

July 26

1775: Ben Franklin became the first Postmaster General.
1856: George Bernard Shaw born in Dublin, Ireland.
1887: The designed language Esperanto was published by Dr. L.L. Zamenhof.
1894: Aldous Huxley born.
1947: President Truman signed the National Security Act, which created the Department of Defense, the National Security Council, the CIA and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
1943: Mick Jagger born.
1953: Fidel Castro began his revolt against the Batista regime with unsuccessful attacks on the army barracks in eastern Cuba.
1971: Apollo 15 launched from Cape Kennedy.

July 27

1870: Hilaire Belloc born.
1909: Orville Wright tested the US Army's first airplane by flying a passenger for one hour, twelve minutes.
1940: Bugs Bunny made his film debut in the Warner Brothers release, A Wild Hare.
1953: The Korean War armistice signed at Panmunjom, ending three years of fighting. It took 255 meetings and over two years to reach the agreement.
1960: Richard M. Nixon nominated for president in Chicago.
1974: The House Judiciary Committee voted 27 to 11 to recommend impeachment of Richard M. Nixon for conduct designed to obstruct justice.
2003: Bob Hope, comedian and actor, dies at age of 100. He was born on May 29, 1903.

July 28

1540: King Henry VIII's cheif minister, Thomas Cornwell, was executed.
1655: French novelist Cyrano de Bergerac, the inspiration for the play by the same name by Edmond Rostand, died in Paris.
1750: Johann Sebastian Bach died in Leipzig.
1794: Maximilien Robespierre was sent to the guillotine.
1866: Beatrix Potter born.
1868: The Fourteenth Amendment, guaranteeing due process, was declared in effect.
1914: World War Two began as Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
1943: FDR announced the end of coffee rationing in the US.
1945: A US Army bomber crashed into the Empire State Building's 79th floor, killing 14 people.
1945: The US Senate ratified the UN charter by a 89 to 2 vote.

July 29

1588: England defeated the Spanish Armada in the Battle of Gravelines.
1890: Vincent van Gogh died in Auvers, France.
1907: Melvin Belli born.
1914: Transcontinental telephone service began with a conversation betwen New York City and San Francisco.
1957: Jack Parr began as host of NBC's Tonight Show
1958: President Eisenhower established NASA.
1981: Prince Charles married Lady Diana Spencer at St. Paul's Cathedral in London.

July 30

1691: the first legislative assembly in America, the House of Burgess, opened at Jamestown, Virginia.
1792: The French anthem, La Marseillaise, was first sung in Paris.
1818: Emily Bronte born.
1857: Thorstein Velblen born.
1863: Henry Ford born in Dearborn Township, Michigan.
1916: German saboteurs blew up a minitions plant near Jersey City, New Jersey.
1942: FDR signed a bill creating the WAVES, the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service.
1947: Arnold Schwarzenegger born.
1956: President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed law making "In God We Trust" the national motto, replacing the former motto, "E. Pluribus Unum." 1965: LBJ signed the Medicare Act into law.
1975: Teamster Jimmy Hoffa disappeared in Detroit Michigan.

July 31

1498: Christopher Columbus discovered the island of Trinidad.
1953: Senator Robert A Taft, Republican-Ohio, died in New York at age 63.
1897: Guglielmo Marconi was awarded a patent for the wireless telegraph.
1912: Milton Friedman born.
2012: Author Gore Vidal dies at age 86.

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